Category: Descriptions of the flora (flowers and plants)


In these days, as the persistence of the sun in the sky increases, the days are getting longer and the air is warm and fragrant, the pansies are blooming in my garden.
The spectacle of their bloom and their colors, all different and equally amazing, are adding a touch of grace and joy throughout the whole garden. It is a joy to watch them bloom every year, so I could not avoid writing an article for praise them, telling their botanical characteristics, their origin in ancient legends and myths and their various and great medicinal properties .

It is an herbaceous plant, annual, and it has a small root. The stem can reach 40 cm in height and is very simple, covered by tiny hairs, almost invisibles. The leaves are oval in shape. The flowers are brought individually by a thin stem. The corolla has five petals, their color is highly variable, it can go from blue to purple (all combinations are indeed possible: yellow, gold, orange, purple, violet, red, white, and even black very dark purple, many with large showy face markings. A large number of bicoloured flowers have also been produced). These aren’t small blossoms you have to strain to see. Pansy flowers are huge and held high above the plant, like colorful little faces looking at you.
Finally, the fruit is an oval-shaped capsule, and when it reaches maturity, it opens in three parts that contain many brown seeds. It grows naturally in meadows and cultivated fields. It is often cultivated for its beautiful and striking colors. When cultivated, one must choose a limestone and clay ground, well fertilized and exposed to the sun only for few hours in a day, because this flower prefers the shadows.  
It should be watered abundantly in spring and scatter the watering in summer to suspend almost all in the autumn and winter. Growing pansies could be very successfully during fall and winter. Experts recommend to sow seed indoors in mid-summer, six to eight weeks before transplanting. The pansies can be transplanted into the garden once the summer heat has been broken and cooler weather arrives. It does not fear the frost of the winter, for this reason it is a plant that is also widespread in the wild. Protect your pansies during cold weather by temporarily allowing them to wilt. The dry leaves are not damaged by cold; they recover nicely when warmer temperatures appear. But if the soil is frozen while dry, with frigid winds howling across the leaves, the roots of the pansy plants will be unable to transport water back to the leaves. For this reason, keep beds thoroughly mulched with at least two inches of a living organic mulch during the winter. In fact, that’s the real secret of pansies: the only time they won’t grow well is in the hottest months of summer, generally July and August. So if you plant them early in September, you have a chance of enjoying an amazing ten months of bloom, especially if we have a mild winter.


The pansy must be harvested when blooming in spring; the parts used for medicinal purposes are the flowers. When harvested, it must be cut close to the ground, removing any leaves and woody parts. The flowers must be provided to dry in the shade, in thin layers. The dried flowers should be stored in paper or canvas bags.

The pansies are used as an expectorant and emollient in respiratory diseases, especially those due to phlegm, but the most important property of these flowers is that of purifying the skin. Some researchers have reported the utility in case of acne, eczema and pimples, and even the milk crust of childrens. I read that the pansy has also a diuretic and slightly laxative property. The better exploitation of its virtues need a contemporary interior and exterior treatment with infusions and skin applications. 

Tells the myth that the young Attis, Prince of Asia Minor, dying, gave birth to the pansies from his blood. Desperate for his death, his betrothed, Atta, took her own life and also from her blood sprang other pansies; those born from the blood of Attis are the pansies with reddish petals, while all other varieties grew from the blood of Atta. In the imperial Rome it was celebrated the cult of Attis, and his feast day, March 22, was called “dies violae” the day of the Pansy.
In greek, the pansy is called “ion”. Ion was the founder of the ancestry of the Ions; one day after the hunt, he came on the river Alpheus where the Ioniades, the nymphs of pansies, offered him a crown of yellow pansies as a symbol of human and divine kingship. These flowers, among the Greeks, were always called “flowers of Ionia”. The Athenians, the Ionian race, had a particular fondness for the pansy, Pindar also called Athens “City crowned with violets”, crowned by the sacred flower which gives kingship and power.

Even in England this flower has always been loved, by the Celts and even during the Middle Ages: it is said that the Knights of the Round Table consulted the pansy to know their fate by interpreting the number and arrangement of rays from the center of the flower: seven lines (a lucky amount) meant constancy in love, while more meant fickleness and even disappointment in affairs of the heart.

The legend of the pansy says the flower was originally white but turned bright purple where it was pierced by Cupid’s arrow. It’s said that you can see a loved one in the face of a pansy. Even the flower’s named is derived from the French pensee, meaning thought, reflecting the flower’s reputation for bringing thoughts of loved ones. Shakespeare clearly understood the meaning of the flower when, in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” , he wrote that the sleeping Titania will fall in love with the first creature she will see when she will awake, thanks to the pansy juice on her eyes (“the juice of it, on sleeping eyelids laid, will make a man or woman madly dote (fall in love) upon the next live creature that it sees.”. The pansy is also known as Heart’s Ease, for it was believed that carrying the flower would ensure the love of your sweetheart.  
The pansy was one of the ingredients in a Celtic love potion, because the pansy was supposed to have magical love powers. The petals, being heart-shaped, were thought to cure the broken hearts of the lovers.
According to a german legend, the pancy once had a wonderful and strong scent. People came from miles to smell the flowers. By doing this, the people destroy the grass around the pansies. The pansy prayed to the Gods for help because the feed for the cattle was being destroyed. So the Gods took away its loveable scent, but gave it great beauty instead. The pansy is associated with the St. Valentine’s Day and has long been exchanged by lovers. According to a legend, the pansies should not be picked while the dew is upon them, for that would cause the death of a loved one. The pansy should never be picked in the middle of a spell of fine weather, or it is said that the rain will surely soon return. Oddly enough, to dream of this otherwise delightful little flower is said to forecast an unpleasant experience or misunderstanding with someone of the slumberer’s own sex.

To read the whole article, with many recipes, curiosities and many photos of my garden:

http://varenyasgarden.blogspot.com/2010/03/pansy-curiosities-and-insights.html

Primrose

The primrose is a plant of the family Primulacee (there are, by approximation, at least two hundred different species, all belonging to the same family). It blooms between March and late April. It can be seen from the range of hills to the Alpine belt, it prefers fertile, moist soils and can grow both in the shadows as in the sun. It grows in moist, deciduous forests and grassland. In fact, all the photographs I made of this flower, I’ve taken in a very humid forest, traversed by a brook and surrounded by fallow fields and ruined homes. This is a protected species.
It resembles very much the primula veris, and the flowers have a pale yellow corolla (but the flowers have a wide range of colors and, sometimes, can be scented), the flower has five petals, heart shaped, the calyx of the flower is very tight .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I found these days a very abundant blossoming, helped by the warm weather of the spring. This plant blooms when the insects are still very few (I’ve only seen two bees and a pale green butterfly visit these tender flowers), and because of this, its flowers are often not pollinated. Shakespeare, in “The Winter’s Tale,” has drawn a poetic metaphor: “the pale primroses who die unmarried”.
Its name reflects its early birth; in the language of flowers, it has inspired the symbol of the first youth. Lovers have endeavored to tell the beloved: “The key to my heaven is in your heart.” with this flower.
Like everything announcing the new season and the renewal of the year, the primrose is also a symbol of good luck and good wishes (for example in England, where such a plant also known as “bunch of keys”).
The primrose is considered a “Plant of Fairies”.

This plant is popular for its numerous medicinal properties; it is rich in active ingredients such as saponins, flavonoids, etc.. It is used as an expectorant and against respiratory diseases, it is indeed an excellent sedative for the cough: the dried flowers are used to improve the herbal against the cough, as well as sweating and tranquilizer. The root has a diuretic property, but it is also used against rheumatic pains; it also has a stimulating effect on the sneezing. In homeopathy, it is used in cases of cardiovascular weakness and headache.
The cowslip’s wine is obtained by putting the flowers in a bottle and covering them with white wine: this preparation promotes the good circulation. The dried flowers are also used to prepare an aromatic tea but with no exciting action, to perfume the beer and to improve the bouquet of wine. Prepared as candied, they become a delicious dessert.
In the wild, it should not be collected because it is a protected plant, but it may be cultivated. The time of harvest, in this case, is: the roots in autumn, the leaves before flowering and the flowers, the perfect ones, towards the end of March and in April (if they are still in the period of full bloom: this depends on climate and the variety of flower).

To see all my photos:

http://varenyasgarden.blogspot.com/2010/03/flowers-of-springtime-primrose-and.html

Panorama of the Alpine meadows

Springtime is at hand. The first cowslips are now flourishing in the plains. The mountains still are covered by white snow, but, soon, the growing heat of the Sun will dissolve the snow of the fierce winter and will enable us to enjoy the seasonal return of all the flowers and fruits of the generous Earth.
Many love the beauties of this Earth, but so few are able to recognize, know and call with its proper name a plant, a flower, a tree. I wish to be helpful in this matter, so that all my walkings on mountains and among forests shall be fruitful and bring delight as well.

 

Carduus Defloratus

-Carduus Defloratus (Alpine thistle)

It belongs to the family of Composite. It ‘a perennial herb, of vivid color, slender and devoid of leaves on the stem. But in the bottom of the stem, closest to the earth, has very prickly leaves, oblong, divided into lobes of variable size, toothed and thorny. The flower is a peep out of flowers, purple or dark purple, surrounded and protected by a crown of small leaves, all very thorny.
This plant grows, and can be seen, mainly on scree, in non-fertilized lawns and in woodlands full of brightness. It prefers soils rich in humus, very sunny and limestone. It is not uncommon, in the Alps, to see great expanses of lawn, even at high altitude where trees do not grow more, not even the strongest trees, rich with all these colorful flowers and the lawns are invaded by butterflies and bees, which are very greedies of the pollen from this flower.
It ‘a very happy plant visited by butterflies and bumblebees of all kinds, especially in July / August when is the peak of its flowering. Its seeds, collected in this period towards the end of August, dried in the sun and then taken into the tea, have cleansing properties, in general, especially for the liver, it is well known since antiquity (Pseudo Apuleius in his book “De virtutibus herbarum”). The tradition considers it as a solar plant, a plant of the summer solstice, for this reason, in all the folk traditions of Europe, is used to protect and ward off the harmful spirits.

Rhododendron Ferrugineum

-Rhododendron Ferrugineum (Rhododendron ferruginea)

It belongs to the family of Ericaceous. It ‘an evergreen shrub, bushy, much branched. Its leaves are oval and oblong, bright green on the upper and rust-colored on the lower side: from this particular is his name. The flowers are pink or purplish red, bell- shaped, are in inflorescences. It blooms in June / July. It lives in high altitude moorland, in the sparse forest, not too thick but moist, rocky places, and preferably on soil acidic. It ‘a species that requires high protection, (the Alps have declared this plant a protected species) because its full development requires many years, even a single twig has many dozens of annual rings. In the past, was collected in an intense way, because, with its branches, small twigs were manufactured, used for lighting fires in the fireplaces.
This plant may be infested by the parasitic fungus Exobasidium rhododendri, whitish and with rounded shape. This fungus can be collected and, if marinated with the oil of prunus brigantina, provides a medicated oil for arthritis, rheumatism and sciatica. However the leaves are highly toxic and in any Herbal manual is indicated as not suitable for personal use, unless you are experienced herbalists.
This plant was well known in antiquity: his name is greek and means “tree of the rose” and was also called “pink graduation” because its leaves resemble the laurel. Pliny refers to it, recalling the toxicity of its leaves, especially for the animals; Apuleius speaks of it also in his “Metamorphoses,” when the protagonist, Lucius, mistakes it for a bush of roses, and realizes his mistake finally, because the rhododendron has no scent.
Its beauty, coupled with its venom, have meant that in the vocabulary of flowers is a symbol of the misleading allurements.

 

Aconitum napellus

-Aconitum napellus (Aconite)

It belongs to the family of Buttercups. It is a protected species. The aconite is a perennial plant, with a sturdy stem that can become up to one meter high, the leaves are deeply affected on the margin, to take an almost ragged form.
The flowers are very distinctive and very beautiful, when there’s his full flowering in July and August, are colored dark blue or bluish purple very intense. Each flower has five sepals. The upper petal is shaped like a helmet, two egg-shaped petals are on the sides and are called “wings”, while the two lower petals are very small and hidden. The corolla is composed of yellow filaments that can be seen only if the flower is fully opened. It grows mainly in alpine meadows, along the course of streams and near the huts on moist soil rich in nutrients, and also in undergrowth.
It is one of the most poisonous plants known, its active ingredient, the aconitine, is a poison that is absorbed directly through the skin. As taught the ancestors, Pliny recalls: “there is no evil from which don’t derive something good.” So, this poisonous plant is also used for medical use, it has properties painkillers, decongestants, anti-inflammatory and sedative and are studied its antitumor properties.
In antiquity, however, was used primarily as a strong poison, spread on the tips of arrows and weapons, and the farmers used it to kill the wolves that threatened their herds. According to legend, the name of this plant is derived from Acone, the port of Heraclea in Bithynia, where it sprung for the first time from the drool of Cerberus, driven by Heracles during the twelfth labor. According to the derivation of terminology, instead, Ovid, said that the name derives from “akone” that in greek means stone. “An herb that is born and is resistant on the hard stone and so is called aconite by the peasants.”
The flower has the names: “Helm of Jupiter”, “Helm of Odin” or “Helm of Thor” and in the Norse mythology it represents the errant knight and it is said that it has the power to render invisible. It is also called “Coach of Venus” because its reproductive system looks like that of the women. It is best known as “Devil’s Grass,” was widely used by witches for their magic, and also was one of the ingredients of the famous ointment with which witches could went, flying, to the sabbath.

There are many things you can love of Greece, many may be recalled with nostalgia, and many remain etched in

memory for their enchanting beauty and uniqueness. One of these things is the natural vegetation that grows wild in many parts of Hellas, in those lonely, mysterious places in which hardly seems that the time has elapsed, and where modern men go so rarely.This is a small tribute to the beauty of the Greek flora, that I love so greatly!

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.)

The rosemary is an evergreen shrub, a bush in the family of the Labiatae. The stem can be high by a few tens of cm up to two / three meters in height, the stem is initially prostrate at the base, where it occasionally produces many natural offshoots, then becomes gradually more and more erect and much branched. At the bottom, the trunk has a bark that browses in longitudinal strips, dark brown in colour. The leaves are leathery and persistent, have a linear form with the folded edge down, the upper surface is green and glossy, the lower one is white, because of unbranched and glandular hairs. The flowers are present for most of the year in the warmer parts of the Mediterranean coastline, they are of a beautiful color blue violet or lilac, and are grouped in cluster, have five petals, three upper and two lower. Look at the shape of each individual flower: does not looks like a little fairy with a sparkling and delicate dress?
As it only grows naturally along the coastline and forests that are located near the sea, never or almost never goes to the interior of a territory. Definitely it loves the sun and the heat, it fears only the cold and, above all, the prolonged frost, but aside from the cold, it is a rustic plant, highly resistant, which does not need particularly fertile or treated ground, does not need rain and is not subject almost to any illness or infection, to which are often subject all plants. Sometimes the growth is so luxuriant that comes to form dense and compact hedges, often covered with bees and butterflies, because they enjoy greatly its scent and its pollen.
The rosemary is a plant that, since ancient times, has inspired legends, traditions and miraculous medicines.
Its Latin name, “Rosmarinus”, relates it closely to the sea: according to some scholars it would derive from “ros” dew, “maris”, of the sea, with the meaning of “dew of the sea”. According to other scholars the name derives from “rosa”, rose, and” maris “, with the meaning of ” rose of the sea”. Still others claim it comes from “rhus”, shrub, and therefore it could mean “a shrub of the sea”. In any case, his pale blue color reminds of the color of the marine water of the Aegean sea.
In ancient Egypt was considered a symbol of immortality and ,because of this, they used to put a buch of it in the hands of the deceased. The Romans crowned with rosemary the idols of the Lares, the genii of the family home. His funeral use was maintained even in modern times, and even today, in Sicily, the funeral wreaths are woven with myrtle and rosemary. According to the doctrine which connects the plants to astral influences, and hence to the body parts, the rosemary is a plant of Gemini and rules on the hands and their woes. For this reason, in the ancient rites of purification, the manual ablutions with rosemary solutions were a prerequisite. This plant was considered so sacred that it could be used instead of incense in the religious ceremonies.
It is believed, in the folk tradition, that the rosemary is particularly dear to the fairies, often hidden in its flowers, sometimes taking the form of little snakes. Further, it is alleged that the poisonous animals nourish invincible aversion toward this plant and none of them would ever enter a house protected by the presence of the rosemary. It is a plant that gives joy and happiness, especially if planted near the house, and this is clear also by its Doric name, “makarìtes” , blessed. It is said that its scent removes the nightmares, carry away the smell that carry diseases and protects against lightning strikes (Corpus Hermeticum). In addition, its scent has the power to strengthen memory, so it was used to study near it or by holding a crown of it. Alludes to this property, in “Hamlet”, Ophelia, when she says: “That’s rosemary, that’s for remembrance …”
In the language of flowers, it means the happy heart, or the sincerity of love and marital fidelity, and, because of its beautiful meanings, is also considered an auspicious plant on the day of the wedding.
Apart from the legends, the rosemary is a plant with unique medicinal and cosmetic properties, and in this sense has always been used since remote antiquity. The part to be  used in herbal medicine are the young twigs which must be carefully picked in early spring, and eventually dried in the shade (but with the drying up it loses most of its heady aroma). Many oils are obtained from the rosemary and many extracts useful in pharmacy, perfumery, and liquor. The plant has indeed stimulating and digestive properties, especially for the liver, has the ability to suppress the cough, thin the phlegm and accelerate the healing of illness. The essential oil is useful for the treatment of bruises, joint  and muscle pains etc. In cosmetics, lotions and baths render fragrant and purify the skin, invigorate and strengthen, not to mention the lovely scent that can be enjoyed for long because it is very persistent and delicate.

Asphodel (Asphodelus albus)

The asphodel belongs to the lily family, is a herbaceous plant with a root system very complex, it consists of numerous swollen and tuberous roots, gathered together at the
apex. The stem is variously branched and can be high from 50 to 100 cm. All leaves arise from the base of the plant, have triangular cross section, and can be very short
to reach even 70 cm in length. The leaves become narrow gradually towards the top, are completely hairless and light green. The flowers have six petals fleshy, whites, and whose median rib is red or green to very dark. The fruit is a capsule oval and elongated, maturing, it opens in three perfect parts to release the seeds blackish brown. It is a plant that grows in grassy and open places  in all the Mediterranean, provided that they are very sunny. It is very
frequently found in the so called “zone of the olive” and near the beaches. It much prefers the rocky soils or loose soils, such as limestone. This ornamental plant, of great charm and beauty, with grace appears in the meadows, both solo and in large floral carpets. is an apparition almost magical in the woods and sunny beaches along the Mediterranean, with its high stem and its ethereal bearing .
Ever since Homer, the asphodel has always been regarded as a plant of the Underworld, as Homer remembers in the Odyssey (Od. XI, 487 to 491 / 539-573). In the classical division of the Underworld, the house of Hades is divided into three sections: Tartarus is for the wicked and unjust, the Elysian Fields are for the just and virtuous, and finally the Asphodel Meadows are for those who, during their lifetime, were neither good nor evil but a mixture of both. Moreover, being necessary to the dead the food, the asphodel was planted on the graves and considered as their source of sustenance in the afterlife. Therefore, even in modern times, in the Mediterranean countries, a meadow covered with its flowers is always considered as a place to stay or visit of the dead. Theocritus links this flower to the Mystery religions and their
Gods, which often, in frescoes, are shown wearing crowns of white asphodel. The asphodel is also said to be part of the “Kepos”, the garden of the Gods, where they grow all the magical plants of the tradition. Pliny tells us that another name used to describe this flower so special, was “hastula regia”, the royal scepter, and therefore a manifestation of an higher divine power. Always Pliny relates that, in his days, it was sown before the door of country houses as a remedy against the negative sorcery.
The authors cite many ancient recipes to cook the root: Theophrastus says that the root bulb is the best part, that they used to eat with figs; Pliny notes that the bulb could be cooked in the ashes with the addition of salt and oil. It is said that Pythagoras was very fond of this type of food. Mallow and asphodel were considered to have been the first nourishment of mankind and so these flowers were offered on the altars (Plutarch, Moralia).
The ancient medicine, Greek in particular, suggests many therapeutic uses of this flower: the bulbs, cooked and  used in the preparation of herbal teas were recommended as tonics, and pulped were useful for treating diseases of the joints and nerves, the seeds instead, taken into  the wine, heal snake bites and scorpion stings.
The part used for herbal and medicinal uses is just the bulb, but it contains a certain amount of alkaloids, which makes the therapeutic use inadvisable  for internal use.
The bulbs should be harvested when the plant enters the resting phase, in September / October, after the flower has dried, or in March, before it starts again the growth cycle. After being washed, you have to let them dry in the sun and always keep them away from moisture. The asphodel has a long traditional use for cosmetics applications as an emollient, cooling and decongestant for skin irritation, especially from the sun. An another traditional use is also that of the fresh pulp of the bulbs to remove the freckles.

Poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.)

The poppy belongs to the family of Papaveraceae, is an annual plant, very hardy and very easy to observe. The root is white, the top produces a rosette of leaves, from which rises then the stem, up to 80 cm long. The stem is covered with long silky hair, turned horizontally. The basal leaves form a dense rosette, they are lanceolate and have an elliptical form, the margin is toothed, the base narrows into a long stalk; on the contrary, the leaves of the stem are much simpler and smaller. All the leaves are covered with silky and soft hair. The flowers are solitary, one for each stem. Before flowering, the buds are hanging. The cup has two sepals that fall at the flowering, and the corolla has four petals rounded, wider than long, deep red, and often have a black or dark purple spot at the base. The stamens are very numerous, all black. The fruit, which contains many seeds blackish brown, is an oval capsule, maturing, it opens with small holes from which it drops its seeds.
The poppy grows naturally almost to the submontane belt, in grassy places shared with other species of flowers, and especially in the fields of wheat, but it is not uncommon, during periods of maximum flowering (May / July), to observe it on the edges of railways and country roads and grassland pastures on the hills. Sometimes it grows so dense to cover of bright red all the lawn, creating an incredible visual effect.
The Greeks represented Hypnos, the God of sleep, with his head crowned with this flower or we can see images of him, holding this flower in his hand. Likewise they depicted also Death and Night. Following this inspiration, the Baroque artists have adorned  of the poppies the front of Oblivion of love, a winged boy asleep near the source of Cyzicus, where the water had the power to erase from the mind the remembrance of the past loves. All the species of poppy have similar effects, but not all contain substances of very high drug effects, like the papaver somniferum from which opium is extracted. The poppy is extremely common in Mediterranean regions during the late spring, its appearance indicates that the beginning of summer is near.
This flower is associated with the power, in particular the political power, because of the legend regarding the last king of Rome, Tarquin the Proud. Legend says that one day the king, wishing to show to his child the safest way to seize the city of Gabi, tore down, with a stick, the higher poppies  in the garden, explaining with a symbolic action, that one had to remove, before all, the citizens most influential and powerful.
Because of its sedative and soporific virtues, the poppy is regarded as being under the influence of the planet Saturn and took the meanings of laziness and misanthropy, sleep and death. In nineteenth-century language of flowers is instead the symbol of the  dormant pride.
In popular tradition, its petal was used as a test of loyalty in love affairs: place it on the palm of your hand and punch him, it must produce a snap to show that the beloved one is faithful.
The part with medicinal properties is the petal. They should be collected during the period of full bloom, the best time is late May and early June until the summer solstice and the petals should be detached with great delicacy. They must be dried in the shade and in shadows must always be preserved. The poppy is considered harmless because, in herbal medicine, are used the petals and not the capsules, but this does not exempt from a certain caution in the use of this flower at home. Infusions of poppy petals were reported as mild sedatives, acts to facilitate sleep, especially for the children and the elderly. To these infusions is attributed, since time immemorial, the ability to calm the cough and soothe the pains of stomach. The poppy should be used only when strictly necessary but, in the absence of precise knowledge, the capsules should never be used. The petals, because of their bright red color, were used in the past by women to make up the lips and cheeks. Extracts of the flowers have a calming and anti-inflammatory effect on the reddened skin. A beautiful and often a dangerous, wondrous flower!

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