Is lost in the mists of time, the knowledge of the fact that the Moon has a direct influence on the biological behavior of all plants and, consequently, on farming practices, and it determines their success or their failure.
The advices, that came from the peasant wisdom, belong to a tradition as old as the world, and probably it’s began when the men began to sow their fields and started making agriculture their only method of survival.The “watching the sky and then sow” fits in very well in the current climate of rediscovery of Nature and its delicious secrets, forgotten because of the cold rationalism that dominates the modern life and that was threatening to erase from the memory of men these ancient knowledges. There is a deep connection between lunar phases and natural phenomena that take place on earth. The focus falls mainly on those events that have teh character of periodicity, remarkably regular, just like those typical of the vegetation, of course, that are highly dependent on the course and return of the seasons.
The alternation of phases of the Moon perfectly evokes the inexhaustible and continuous cycle that characterizes the entire plant world. Since time immemorial this phenomenon has been noticed and studied with great care, not only in Europe but among all the ancient civilizations of the world, only in 1600, however, some scholars attracted to this ancient knowledge, have picked up the topic and have began a critical study, based on scientific method, to discover which and how much influence The moon has on the Earth and its elements.
The well-known influence of the moon on tides is a proof that the moon exerts against the Earth, an attraction which, mainly, affects the bodies who consist largely of water. Is believed that the Moon “moves the humours” of the bodies of living beings, ie the blood of all animals and the sap of plants, activating their movement in favor of biological functions.
One can say that it is rooted in the human mind from the very beginning, the idea of the link between the appearing and disappearing of the Moon and the birth and death of human beings, between increasing phases and growing, between waning phases and decay.
The lunar calendar existed since time immemorial. A lunar month corresponds roughly to a calendar month, every month the moon may in turn be divided into shorter periods, corresponding to approximation: a quarter of the moon for each week. But, since the Moon makes its way through, delaying slightly each day, there cannot be an exact correspondence between the date of the month and moon phase. That’s why, for example, the Hindu Festival calendar, a lunar calendar very old, always sees the change, every year, of the dates of the holy holidays, and a feast shall never fall on the same day of the last year, because of this continuous change of the phases of moon.

the lunar phases, the climate and the weather previsions

Since antiquity it is known that the moon has some influence also on the “atmospheric tides”. The higher deductions in this field were gathered by Erato of Soli, a greek astronomer by 270 BC, who wrote a didactic poem, “The phenomena and predictions”.
Here’s a short list of “weather signs” most followed, both among farmers and among seafarers: -disk white and clear: beautiful climate and serene;
-the rising of the moon, the horns of the crescent have little brightness, or have dark edges: bad weather, possible storms;
-pale-disc, surrounded by colored halos, when they are close, then the weather will be cloudy and sunny, but if they are distant, bad weather and rain should be expected;
-disk with reddish hues: wind.
A phenomenon linked to the full moon in late April-early May, is indicated by the word “Red Moon”. During this time, the sky is often quite calm and the air is crystal clear, and the moon seems very bright: in conjunction with this clearness of the atmosphere, the night temperature drops considerably compared to daylight, and causes the so-called white frost, due to the formation of a thin layer of frost on the young shoots that, at dawn, appear reddish.
The most reliable estimate is that which is based on the presence of halos and shades of color. These phenomena are in fact visible when the atmosphere is rich in moisture and is therefore very likely that they are to be expected rain clouds. The moonlight through the tiny water droplets that are suspended in the air, undergoes a phenomenon of refraction, similar to that which causes the appearance of the rainbow after a storm.
Other beliefs about the weather and moon phases:
-The time that occurs with the new moon is to last;
-are more numerous the sunny days during the initial part of the last quarter;
-are more numerous the overcast days in the period immediately preceding the new moon.

The Moon and the Zodiac

Some believe that the influence of the Moon on Earth is correct, and complicated, by the constellations that the Moon encounters during his journey in the zodiacal band, ie the ring of the sky where you can observe the movements of the Sun, Moon and other planets.
The zodiac was originally divided into twelve sectors of 30 ° each, each of which corresponds to a constellation, characterized by a zodiac sign. It is thought that, even in agriculture, we should exploit the combined effect of moon phases and astrological signs conducive to perform individual work and for the various plant species.
However, the already difficult connection between season, the weather and moon phase, it becomes even more difficult to determine when we consider also the signs of the zodiac. This is also due to the phenomenon of downgrading of the spring equinox (around 50”per year), because of which each constellation gradually slips in front of the field that bears his name, which was established in ancient by ancient astronomers and scholars. For example, where 3500 years ago, there was the Ram, today you find the Fishes. This means in practice that each sign corresponds to the constellation which precedes it. Signs that have a similar influence on vegetation are at the top of an ideal triangle, and hence the twelve constellations are grouped in four stingrays:
1) Triangle of the Heat: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius
2) Triangle of the Earth: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn
3) Triangle of the Light: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius
4) Triangle of the Water : Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces
Signs of Heat are favorable to crops who desire heat  (vegetables, fruit, corn); Earth Signs stimulate root development, and therefore all the underground vegetables (carrots, turnips, onions), the signs of Light are auspicious to each crop, but in particular the cultivation of flowers, signs of Water are particularly suitable for the cultivation of vegetables, tender and juicy (salads, tomatoes, zucchini, etc..).

The Moon and the plants, other notes

Suggestions of the Tradition

“hard moon” and “soft moon”: the peasant tradition recommends to sow the grass in strict lunar phases, depending on the type of crop you want.
The waning moon is called the “tender” because it promotes the development of herbaceous stems, with its abundant production of forage.
The crescent moon is called “hard” because, in contrast, induces an early and abundant earing, with its production of grain.
The lawn sown in the declining phase is maintained, in the long, young and green, while that sown in the growing phase prematurely ages and yellow in a hurry.

> Waning Moon: sow and plant vegetables under the ground or plants that grow near the ground. In the kitchen garden, carrots, onions, turnips and spinach etc, salads etc.. in the garden, bulbs and tubers to regenerate, and even by planting ground cover and edging.
> Crescent Moon: sow and plant plants that grow on the earth, in which the flowering and fruit production are linked to a remarkable luxuriance of vegetation. In the kitchen garden, tomatoes, beans, eggplant, etc.. in the garden, flowering vines, roses burgeoning etc.

Schedule of interventions in the garden and orchard
-Sowing and planting
Though the crescent moon is found to be conducive to germination and to engraftment, in practice this is what recommends the tradition:
> Crescent Moon: sowing and planting those species in which the vigor is not in contrast with the flowering or fruit production, but on the contrary it is essential to support them.In the garden: flowering plants in general, climbers in particular, re-bloom roses, hydrangeas etc.In the kitchen garden: tomatoes, eggplants, beans, peppers, etc..
> Moonset: sowing and planting those species in which the vegetative development is inversely proportional to the flowering and fruit production.
In the garden: the species border and ground cover, which, for having flowers, must be kept low and compact. In the kitchen garden: lettuce, spinach, radishes, which tend to get up early with their flowering stem, ending their cycle.

-bare-root transplants
These types of transplants are performed with the waning moon, which assist in the resting phase, during which we proceed with just the planting of trees without the bread of earth.

-bulbs, tubers and rhizomatic
With the crescent moon will be planted bulbs and tubers that you want to flourish.
With the waning moon will grub up the bulbs underground to store them.

With the crescent moon is to made layers, spurs, a division of assets, planting of suckers: for the rooting is necessary that the plant is in full swing and full of juice.
With the waning moon bury the cuttings, so that the nutrient substances will remain available to the roots that need to grow, and not instead referred to the quotes, as in the increasing phase.

Always perform them with the crescent moon, because the plants must be in full operation, to allow the removal of the cortex and the rapid welding of tissues in contact. This also applies to grafts performed during the winter rest.

-Pruning and chamfer
With the crescent moon, the stimulating effects of pruning in the era preceding the awakening of vegetation as well as those of the summer flock, are assisted by the influence of the moon.
With the waning moon, the depressing effects of pruning performed in the course of vegetative growing became more marked, while the stimulating effects of green topping become more marked.

-Harvest: given the lunar influence on the circulation of juices in plant tissues, it is recommended:
with a crescent moon, gather vegetables and fruits for fresh consumption, and in general all those products that you appreciate for the tenderness and juiciness.
with a waning moon, harvest seed, such as beans, peas, as also tinned tomatoes, fruit for jam, nuts like walnuts and hazelnuts, and in general all the products for the conservation and of rescheduled use.

The calendar of the garden

January-waning moon

-Trees and shrubs that lose their leaves, are planted when they are completely at rest, so they do not suffer from the low temperatures and possible drought.
Complete the cleansing of the dead parts and of the branches damaged.

-Rose: they need to be planted at this time, in cold climates, where they give no sign of revival.
February-crescent moon

-Trees and flowering shrubs: species are pruned that have already bloomed (Calicanto, Witch Hazel), so, at once, they start to form new buds. The same treatment should be given to plants that have lost the berries (Pyracantha, Cotoneaster etc.).

February-waning moon

-Annual: they are to be sown in the middle of the month, under shelter, for early spring flowering species (Ager, Petunia, Salvia etc.).
-Perennials: Spring-flowering species are divided and replanted, if you have not already done so in the autumn (Aubrezia, Arabida etc.). Vivacious species, or those who lose their bright leaves, are to be divided before awakening (Astro, Saponaria, Valerian,etc..).
-Lawn: at the awakening of vegetation, rake, mop up, sow to thicken stains dry.
-Climbing: the annuals of great development are sown directly into the ground, covered with dry leaves (morning glories, sweet peas, Ipomea etc.).
-Trees and shrubs: those with  bare root are to be planted not later than the end of the month. Carry out pruning, but not in areas that have late frosts.
-Hedges: Prune species that lose their leaves, to restore the geometry in view of the spring.
March- crescent moon

-Trees and flowering shrubs: prune all species that have already bloomed in this month (Forsizia etc.)
-Annual: sow all the species that have the flowering in summer / autumn (Zinnia, Cosmea etc.), also directly in the soil, but under shelter at night.
-Bulbs/ tubers: sow all the plants that have the flowering in summer/ autumn (garlic, amaryllis, mombrezia, Dalia, etc.) but the buds must already be in the process of awakening.
-Moltiplication: the plants that are already in the state of awakening, are reproduced by cuttings, layering and offshoot.
-Hydrangeas: as soon as the buds begin to swell,  prune or above a bud to flower (large) or above a bud wood (thin): the first to stimulate flowering, the second to encourage the growth of new branches.
-Perennials: the flowering annuals are replanted immediately (Campanula, Aubrezia etc.).
March-waning moon

-Trees and shrubs that lost their leaves: the last time to sow them in the earth. Be careful of their need of water, modest but steady.
-Rose: sow those that have their bread of earth. Prune carefully the burgeoning varieties.
April- crescent moon

-Annual: the species that have the flowering in summer/ autumn can be still sown, but they must be under shade during the day. Are to planted in the open all the species sown in vases.
-Bulbs/ tubers: it is the last moment to plant bulbs and tubers, flowering in summer / autumn, provided that they are equipped with well-developed buds. (Amaryllis, Dahlia, Begonia, Canna etc.)
-Moltiplication: cuttings and layers give excellent results in this month.
-Perennials: prune the plants with long stem, so that they could create compact clumps before their blossoming.
-Hedges: prune all the species, energically.

April- waning moon

-Leafy perennial: species grown for their foliage should be divided and pruned frequently to ensure they run out.
-Rose: cut the wild  stems arising at the base  from the roots and along the stem of the tree, below the point of grafting.
-Hedges: prune, especially in places where they tend to escape from the established forms.
May- crescent moon

-Trees and flowering shrubs: must be cut soon the withered tops, to allow  plants to form new flower buds for the following year (save the species with berries such as Pyracantha).
-Annuals: must be planted with the bread of earth, the autumn flowering ones (Ager, lobelia etc.).
-Perennials: must frequently be pruned the continues flowering species  (Alissa, Achillea etc.).
-Rose: the time of their complete flowering. You must gradually remove the faded flowers, cutting off below the third / fourth leaf.

May- waning moon

-Trees and shrubs: you must remove the branches that have no buds or those above the flowers. Time of suckering along the trunks and at the base of the plants.
-Perennials: thinning and clean up, uproot the plants that tend to invade the spaces or appear exhausted and dry.
– Lawn: shear with care, severing only the regrowth.
-Rose: the varieties that don’t flourish again, are to be induced to sleep, so that they can have the time to form new shoots, pruning the branches to 5 cm from the branch insertion.
June- crescent moon

-Trees and flowering shrubs: is the last possible moment to remove the branches that have finished flowering. (Lille, viburnum, spirea etc.).
-Moltiplication: cuttings and layers give excellent results with woody branches newly formed.
-Perennials: the grass withered, especially the species ground- cover, must be cut at the base to stimulate new growth.
-Climbing: the herbaceous vines are shortened drastically in favor of the next annual flowering.
June-waning moon

-Bulbs and tubers: you must cut the leaves of the species that have finished flowering. Must weed, and replant immediately organs of the hardy species; the organs of the non hardy species are extracted and preserved by the rules. Must pick up the small bulbs, born around the main one, and cultivate them in a suitable ground, and well fertilized, to make them swell.
-Lawn: it must be cut frequently, before the grasses make the ears and become yellow, and before the weeds go to flower, causing their dissemination.
July- crescent moon

-Bulbs and tubers: must plant the autumn flowering species (Dalia, lily etc.).
-Moltiplication: must perform the cuttings and layers with woody branches, branches of flowering shrubs and herbaceous species  and creepers.
-Perennials: most of them are in full blossoming and flowering (valerian, saponaria etc.); frequent removal of withered flowers.
-Rose: the varieties that don’t flourish again have completed the rest, must be awakened by cutting at the base the thicker branches, of very dark wood, and you should prune also the branches of the previous year.
The varieties that flourished again need to be supported by cutting the branches withered, to a third of their length.
July- waning moon

-Trees and flowering shrubs: it’s always necessary to remove the withered flowers in order to preserve the beauty of the whole foliage.
-Biennial plants: you must sow the seeds so that they can form a good root system before winter.
-Bulbs and tubers: you must cut the leaves of the species that have finished flowering. Must weed, and replant immediately organs of the hardy species; the organs of the non hardy species are extracted and preserved by the rules. Must pick up the small bulbs, born around the main one, and cultivate them in a suitable ground, and well fertilized, to make them swell.
-Hedges: you must eliminate the growth gradually.
August- crescent moon

-Bulbs: the species that bloom in late winter are to be planted, in places that have short summers.(Snowdrops, Tulips, Crocus etc.).
-Grafts: you must do them, when the bud is dormant.
-Moltiplication: cuttings and layers of the evrgreen species.
-Perennials: species that bloom in late winter should be transplanted (Aubrezia, primrose etc.).
-Lawn: the vegetation should be revived and supported by shearing and irrigation.
-Climbing: the evergreens are pruned to avoid being drained internally (honeysuckle, ivy, passion flower, etc..).
-Rose: you must gradually remove the faded flowers, cutting off below the third /fourth leaf.
August- waning moon

-Trees and shrubs: the withered plants are to be pruned to rebalce the foliage.
-Moltiplication: you must take the branches of the year, to make cuttings  to be placed in sand, in boxes, for the spring embedding of evergreens, hydrangeas and other flowering shrubs.
-Rose: the rose gardens that don’t flourish again, must be adjusted to accommodate the rest and the balance  of the vegetation.
September-crescent moon

-Annuals: species that will flower in the following spring, are sown in a protected crop (petunia, pansy, Agere etc.).
-Bulbs: the species that bloom in late winter are to be planted, in places that have short summers.(Snowdrops, Tulips, Crocus etc.).
-Perennials: species that are still in bloom are cut, to prolong the bloom itself (snapdragon, astro etc.). Must be replanted every flower species.
-Rose: you must gradually remove the faded flowers, cutting off below the third /fourth leaf.
September-waning moon

-Annuals: must sow all species cultivated for their foliage, but under shelter.
-Moltiplications: you must take the branches of the year, to make cuttings  to be placed in sand, in boxes, for the spring.
-Hedges: they must be finally regulated in all the details.
October-crescent moon

-Biennals: must plant the seedlings, sown in July. (pansies, forget-me not etc..)
-Annuals: must sow, under shelter, the species to be planted in the last phases of winter (ager, begonia, salvia).
-Bulbs: the species that bloom in late winter are to be planted, in places that have short summers.(Snowdrops, Tulips, Crocus etc.).
-Moltiplication: layes give good results in evergreen species and in some other species too (Spirea, forsitia etc.)
-Lawn: last shearing.

October-waning moon

-Trees and flowering shrubs: withered tops must be removed with care, except in early winter climates where, for this, you will have to wait until the following spring.
-Rose: promote their rest for the winter, by frequent husking.
-All plants: all the species that don’t tolerate temperature below 5° must be prepared for the shelter or to be rolled out an appropriate protection.

November-crescent moon

-Bulbs: sow the species who will flourish in spring/ summer (tulips, iris, hyacinth, narcissus, etc..)
November-waning moon

-Trees and shrubs: prune without danger, because the low temperature does not allow the development of buds.
-Climbing: those that form bowers must be trimmed, so that the weight of snow will not tear them or backgrounds.
-Rose: must be planted those that have the bare root. Drastically prune the varieties that bloom on the branches  which are formed in the following spring.
December-crescent moon

Trees and shrubs: prune, but avoid the too cold temperatures (below 0°).
run this time all the cleaning and husking…and await, Nature will do the rest!